Which Implied Volatility Ratio Is Best?

This post will be about comparing a volatility signal using three different variations of implied volatility indices to predict when to enter a short volatility position.

In volatility trading, there are three separate implied volatility indices that have a somewhat long history for trading–the VIX (everyone knows this one), the VXV (more recently changed to be called the VIX3M), which is like the VIX, except for a three-month period), and the VXMT, which is the implied six-month volatility period.

This relationship gives investigation into three separate implied volatility ratios: VIX/VIX3M (aka VXV), VIX/VXMT, and VIX3M/VXMT, as predictors for entering a short (or long) volatility position.

So, let’s get the data.

require(downloader)
require(quantmod)
require(PerformanceAnalytics)
require(TTR)
require(data.table)

download("http://www.cboe.com/publish/scheduledtask/mktdata/datahouse/vix3mdailyprices.csv", 
         destfile="vxvData.csv")
download("http://www.cboe.com/publish/ScheduledTask/MktData/datahouse/vxmtdailyprices.csv", 
         destfile="vxmtData.csv")

VIX <- fread("http://www.cboe.com/publish/scheduledtask/mktdata/datahouse/vixcurrent.csv", skip = 1)
VIXdates <- VIX$Date
VIX$Date <- NULL; VIX <- xts(VIX, order.by=as.Date(VIXdates, format = '%m/%d/%Y'))


vxv <- xts(read.zoo("vxvData.csv", header=TRUE, sep=",", format="%m/%d/%Y", skip=2))
vxmt <- xts(read.zoo("vxmtData.csv", header=TRUE, sep=",", format="%m/%d/%Y", skip=2))

download("https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/s/jk6der1s5lxtcfy/XIVlong.TXT",
         destfile="longXIV.txt")

xiv <- xts(read.zoo("longXIV.txt", format="%Y-%m-%d", sep=",", header=TRUE))

xivRets <- Return.calculate(Cl(xiv))

One quick strategy to investigate is simple–the idea that the ratio should be below 1 (I.E. contango in implied volatility term structure) and decreasing (below a moving average). So when the ratio will be below 1 (that is, with longer-term implied volatility greater than shorter-term), and the ratio will be below its 60-day moving average, the strategy will take a position in XIV.

Here’s the code to do that.

vixVix3m <- Cl(VIX)/Cl(vxv)
vixVxmt <- Cl(VIX)/Cl(vxmt)
vix3mVxmt <- Cl(vxv)/Cl(vxmt)

stratStats <- function(rets) {
  stats <- rbind(table.AnnualizedReturns(rets), maxDrawdown(rets))
  stats[5,] <- stats[1,]/stats[4,]
  stats[6,] <- stats[1,]/UlcerIndex(rets)
  rownames(stats)[4] <- "Worst Drawdown"
  rownames(stats)[5] <- "Calmar Ratio"
  rownames(stats)[6] <- "Ulcer Performance Index"
  return(stats)
}

maShort <- SMA(vixVix3m, 60)
maMed <- SMA(vixVxmt, 60)
maLong <- SMA(vix3mVxmt, 60)

sigShort <- vixVix3m < 1 & vixVix3m < maShort
sigMed <- vixVxmt < 1 & vixVxmt < maMed 
sigLong <- vix3mVxmt < 1 & vix3mVxmt < maLong 

retsShort <- lag(sigShort, 2) * xivRets 
retsMed <- lag(sigMed, 2) * xivRets 
retsLong <- lag(sigLong, 2) * xivRets

compare <- na.omit(cbind(retsShort, retsMed, retsLong))
colnames(compare) <- c("Short", "Medium", "Long")
charts.PerformanceSummary(compare)
stratStats(compare)

With the following performance:

3ratios.PNG

> stratStats(compare)
                              Short    Medium     Long
Annualized Return         0.5485000 0.6315000 0.638600
Annualized Std Dev        0.3874000 0.3799000 0.378900
Annualized Sharpe (Rf=0%) 1.4157000 1.6626000 1.685600
Worst Drawdown            0.5246983 0.5318472 0.335756
Calmar Ratio              1.0453627 1.1873711 1.901976
Ulcer Performance Index   3.7893478 4.6181788 5.244137

In other words, the VIX3M/VXMT sports the lowest drawdowns (by a large margin) with higher returns.

So, when people talk about which implied volatility ratio to use, I think this offers some strong evidence for the longer-out horizon as a predictor for which implied vol term structure to use. It’s also why it forms the basis of my subscription strategy.

Thanks for reading.

NOTE: I am currently seeking a full-time position (remote or in the northeast U.S.) related to my skill set demonstrated on this blog. Please message me on LinkedIn if you know of any opportunities which may benefit from my skill set.

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Replicating Volatility ETN Returns From CBOE Futures

This post will demonstrate how to replicate the volatility ETNs (XIV, VXX, ZIV, VXZ) from CBOE futures, thereby allowing any individual to create synthetic ETF returns from before their inception, free of cost.

So, before I get to the actual algorithm, it depends on an update to the term structure algorithm I shared some months back.

In that algorithm, mistakenly (or for the purpose of simplicity), I used calendar days as the time to expiry, when it should have been business days, which also accounts for weekends, and holidays, which are an irritating artifact to keep track of.

So here’s the salient change, in the loop that calculates times to expiry:

source("tradingHolidays.R")

masterlist <- list()
timesToExpiry <- list()
for(i in 1:length(contracts)) {
  
  # obtain data
  contract <- contracts[i]
  dataFile <- paste0(stem, contract, "_VX.csv")
  expiryYear <- paste0("20",substr(contract, 2, 3))
  expiryMonth <- monthMaps$monthNum[monthMaps$futureStem == substr(contract,1,1)]
  expiryDate <- dates$dates[dates$dateMon == paste(expiryYear, expiryMonth, sep="-")]
  data <- tryCatch(
    {
      suppressWarnings(fread(dataFile))
    }, error = function(e){return(NULL)}
  )
  
  if(!is.null(data)) {
    # create dates
    dataDates <- as.Date(data$`Trade Date`, format = '%m/%d/%Y')
    
    # create time to expiration xts
    toExpiry <- xts(bizdays(dataDates, expiryDate), order.by=dataDates)
    colnames(toExpiry) <- contract
    timesToExpiry[[i]] <- toExpiry
    
    # get settlements
    settlement <- xts(data$Settle, order.by=dataDates)
    colnames(settlement) <- contract
    masterlist[[i]] <- settlement
  }
}

The one salient line in particular, is this:

toExpiry <- xts(bizdays(dataDates, expiryDate), order.by=dataDates)

What is this bizdays function? It comes from the bizdays package in R.

There’s also the tradingHolidays.R script, which makes further use of the bizdays package. Here’s what goes on under the hood in tradingHolidays.R, for those that wish to replicate the code:

easters <- read.csv("easters.csv", header = FALSE)
easterDates <- as.Date(paste0(substr(easters$V2, 1, 6), easters$V3), format = '%m/%d/%Y')-2

nonEasters <- read.csv("nonEasterHolidays.csv", header = FALSE)
nonEasterDates <- as.Date(paste0(substr(nonEasters$V2, 1, 6), nonEasters$V3), format = '%m/%d/%Y')

weekdayNonEasters <- nonEasterDates[which(!weekdays(nonEasterDates) %in% c("Saturday", "Sunday"))]

hurricaneSandy <- as.Date(c("2012-10-29", "2012-10-30"))

holidays <- sort(c(easterDates, weekdayNonEasters, hurricaneSandy))
holidays <- holidays[holidays > as.Date("2003-12-31") & holidays < as.Date("2019-01-01")]


require(bizdays)

create.calendar("HolidaysUS", holidays, weekdays = c("saturday", "sunday"))
bizdays.options$set(default.calendar = "HolidaysUS")

There are two CSVs that I manually compiled, but will share screenshots of–they are the easter holidays (because they have to be adjusted for turning Sunday to Friday because of Easter Fridays), and the rest of the national holidays.

Here is what the easters csv looks like:

eastersScreenshot

And the nonEasterHolidays, which contains New Year’s Day, MLK Jr. Day, President’s Day, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day (along with their observed dates) nonEasterScreenshot CSV:

Furthermore, we need to adjust for the two days that equities were not trading due to Hurricane Sandy.

So then, the list of holidays looks like this:

> holidays
  [1] "2004-01-01" "2004-01-19" "2004-02-16" "2004-04-09" "2004-05-31" "2004-07-05" "2004-09-06" "2004-11-25"
  [9] "2004-12-24" "2004-12-31" "2005-01-17" "2005-02-21" "2005-03-25" "2005-05-30" "2005-07-04" "2005-09-05"
 [17] "2005-11-24" "2005-12-26" "2006-01-02" "2006-01-16" "2006-02-20" "2006-04-14" "2006-05-29" "2006-07-04"
 [25] "2006-09-04" "2006-11-23" "2006-12-25" "2007-01-01" "2007-01-02" "2007-01-15" "2007-02-19" "2007-04-06"
 [33] "2007-05-28" "2007-07-04" "2007-09-03" "2007-11-22" "2007-12-25" "2008-01-01" "2008-01-21" "2008-02-18"
 [41] "2008-03-21" "2008-05-26" "2008-07-04" "2008-09-01" "2008-11-27" "2008-12-25" "2009-01-01" "2009-01-19"
 [49] "2009-02-16" "2009-04-10" "2009-05-25" "2009-07-03" "2009-09-07" "2009-11-26" "2009-12-25" "2010-01-01"
 [57] "2010-01-18" "2010-02-15" "2010-04-02" "2010-05-31" "2010-07-05" "2010-09-06" "2010-11-25" "2010-12-24"
 [65] "2011-01-17" "2011-02-21" "2011-04-22" "2011-05-30" "2011-07-04" "2011-09-05" "2011-11-24" "2011-12-26"
 [73] "2012-01-02" "2012-01-16" "2012-02-20" "2012-04-06" "2012-05-28" "2012-07-04" "2012-09-03" "2012-10-29"
 [81] "2012-10-30" "2012-11-22" "2012-12-25" "2013-01-01" "2013-01-21" "2013-02-18" "2013-03-29" "2013-05-27"
 [89] "2013-07-04" "2013-09-02" "2013-11-28" "2013-12-25" "2014-01-01" "2014-01-20" "2014-02-17" "2014-04-18"
 [97] "2014-05-26" "2014-07-04" "2014-09-01" "2014-11-27" "2014-12-25" "2015-01-01" "2015-01-19" "2015-02-16"
[105] "2015-04-03" "2015-05-25" "2015-07-03" "2015-09-07" "2015-11-26" "2015-12-25" "2016-01-01" "2016-01-18"
[113] "2016-02-15" "2016-03-25" "2016-05-30" "2016-07-04" "2016-09-05" "2016-11-24" "2016-12-26" "2017-01-02"
[121] "2017-01-16" "2017-02-20" "2017-04-14" "2017-05-29" "2017-07-04" "2017-09-04" "2017-11-23" "2017-12-25"
[129] "2018-01-01" "2018-01-15" "2018-02-19" "2018-03-30" "2018-05-28" "2018-07-04" "2018-09-03" "2018-11-22"
[137] "2018-12-25"

So once we have a list of holidays, we use the bizdays package to set the holidays and weekends (Saturday and Sunday) as our non-business days, and use that function to calculate the correct times to expiry.

So, now that we have the updated expiry structure, we can write a function that will correctly replicate the four main volatility ETNs–XIV, VXX, ZIV, and VXZ.

Here’s the English explanation:

VXX is made up of two contracts–the front month, and the back month, and has a certain number of trading days (AKA business days) that it trades until expiry, say, 17. During that timeframe, the front month (let’s call it M1) goes from being the entire allocation of funds, to being none of the allocation of funds, as the front month contract approaches expiry. That is, as a contract approaches expiry, the second contract gradually receives more and more weight, until, at expiry of the front month contract, the second month contract contains all of the funds–just as it *becomes* the front month contract. So, say you have 17 days to expiry on the front month. At the expiry of the previous contract, the second month will have a weight of 17/17–100%, as it becomes the front month. Then, the next day, that contract, now the front month, will have a weight of 16/17 at settle, then 15/17, and so on. That numerator is called dr, and the denominator is called dt.

However, beyond this, there’s a second mechanism that’s responsible for the VXX looking like it does as compared to a basic futures contract (that is, the decay responsible for short volatility’s profits), and that is the “instantaneous” rebalancing. That is, the returns for a given day are today’s settles multiplied by yesterday’s weights, over yesterday’s settles multiplied by yesterday’s weights, minus one. That is, (S_1_t * dr/dt_t-1 + S_2_t * 1-dr/dt_t-1) / (S_1_t-1 * dr/dt_t-1 + S_2_t-1 * 1-dr/dt_t-1) – 1 (I could use a tutorial on LaTeX). So, when you move forward a day, well, tomorrow, today’s weights become t-1. Yet, when were the assets able to be rebalanced? Well, in the ETNs such as VXX and VXZ, the “hand-waving” is that it happens instantaneously. That is, the weight for the front month was 93%, the return was realized at settlement (that is, from settle to settle), and immediately after that return was realized, the front month’s weight shifts from 93%, to, say, 88%. So, say Credit Suisse (that issues these ETNs ), has $10,000 (just to keep the arithmetic and number of zeroes tolerable, obviously there are a lot more in reality) worth of XIV outstanding after immediately realizing returns, it will sell $500 of its $9300 in the front month, and immediately move them to the second month, so it will immediately go from $9300 in M1 and $700 in M2 to $8800 in M1 and $1200 in M2. When did those $500 move? Immediately, instantaneously, and if you like, you can apply Clarke’s Third Law and call it “magically”.

The only exception is the day after roll day, in which the second month simply becomes the front month as the previous front month expires, so what was a 100% weight on the second month will now be a 100% weight on the front month, so there’s some extra code that needs to be written to make that distinction.

That’s the way it works for VXX and XIV. What’s the difference for VXZ and ZIV? It’s really simple–instead of M1 and M2, VXZ uses the exact same weightings (that is, the time remaining on front month vs. how many days exist for that contract to be the front month), uses M4, M5, M6, and M7, with M4 taking dr/dt, M5 and M6 always being 1, and M7 being 1-dr/dt.

In any case, here’s the code.

syntheticXIV <- function(termStructure, expiryStructure) {
  
  # find expiry days
  zeroDays <- which(expiryStructure$C1 == 0)
  
  # dt = days in contract period, set after expiry day of previous contract
  dt <- zeroDays + 1
  dtXts <- expiryStructure$C1[dt,]
  
  # create dr (days remaining) and dt structure
  drDt <- cbind(expiryStructure[,1], dtXts)
  colnames(drDt) <- c("dr", "dt")
  drDt$dt <- na.locf(drDt$dt)
  
  # add one more to dt to account for zero day
  drDt$dt <- drDt$dt + 1
  drDt <- na.omit(drDt)
  
  # assign weights for front month and back month based on dr and dt
  wtC1 <- drDt$dr/drDt$dt
  wtC2 <- 1-wtC1
  
  # realize returns with old weights, "instantaneously" shift to new weights after realizing returns at settle
  # assumptions are a bit optimistic, I think
  valToday <- termStructure[,1] * lag(wtC1) + termStructure[,2] * lag(wtC2)
  valYesterday <- lag(termStructure[,1]) * lag(wtC1) + lag(termStructure[,2]) * lag(wtC2)
  syntheticRets <- (valToday/valYesterday) - 1
  
  # on the day after roll, C2 becomes C1, so reflect that in returns
  zeroes <- which(drDt$dr == 0) + 1 
  zeroRets <- termStructure[,1]/lag(termStructure[,2]) - 1
  
  # override usual returns with returns that reflect back month becoming front month after roll day
  syntheticRets[index(syntheticRets)[zeroes]] <- zeroRets[index(syntheticRets)[zeroes]]
  syntheticRets <- na.omit(syntheticRets)
  
  # vxxRets are syntheticRets
  vxxRets <- syntheticRets
  
  # repeat same process for vxz -- except it's dr/dt * 4th contract + 5th + 6th + 1-dr/dt * 7th contract
  vxzToday <- termStructure[,4] * lag(wtC1) + termStructure[,5] + termStructure[,6] + termStructure[,7] * lag(wtC2)
  vxzYesterday <- lag(termStructure[,4]) * lag(wtC1) + lag(termStructure[, 5]) + lag(termStructure[,6]) + lag(termStructure[,7]) * lag(wtC2)
  syntheticVxz <- (vxzToday/vxzYesterday) - 1
  
  # on zero expiries, next day will be equal (4+5+6)/lag(5+6+7) - 1
  zeroVxz <- (termStructure[,4] + termStructure[,5] + termStructure[,6])/
    lag(termStructure[,5] + termStructure[,6] + termStructure[,7]) - 1
  syntheticVxz[index(syntheticVxz)[zeroes]] <- zeroVxz[index(syntheticVxz)[zeroes]]
  syntheticVxz <- na.omit(syntheticVxz)
  
  vxzRets <- syntheticVxz
  
  # write out weights for actual execution
  if(last(drDt$dr!=0)) {
    print(paste("Previous front-month weight was", round(last(drDt$dr)/last(drDt$dt), 5)))
    print(paste("Front-month weight at settle today will be", round((last(drDt$dr)-1)/last(drDt$dt), 5)))
    if((last(drDt$dr)-1)/last(drDt$dt)==0){
      print("Front month will be zero at end of day. Second month becomes front month.")
    }
  } else {
    print("Previous front-month weight was zero. Second month became front month.")
    print(paste("New front month weights at settle will be", round(last(expiryStructure[,2]-1)/last(expiryStructure[,2]), 5)))
  }
  
  return(list(vxxRets, vxzRets))
}

So, a big thank you goes out to Michael Kapler of Systematic Investor Toolbox for originally doing the replication and providing his code. My code essentially does the same thing, in, hopefully a more commented way.

So, ultimately, does it work? Well, using my updated term structure code, I can test that.

While I’m not going to paste my entire term structure code (again, available here, just update the script with my updates from this post), here’s how you’d run the new function:

> out <- syntheticXIV(termStructure, expiryStructure)
[1] "Previous front-month weight was 0.17647"
[1] "Front-month weight at settle today will be 0.11765"

And since it returns both the vxx returns and the vxz returns, we can compare them both.

compareXIV <- na.omit(cbind(xivRets, out[[1]] * -1))
colnames(compareXIV) <- c("XIV returns", "Replication returns")
charts.PerformanceSummary(compareXIV)

With the result:

xivComparison

Basically, a perfect match.

Let’s do the same thing, with ZIV.

compareZIV <- na.omit(cbind(ZIVrets, out[[2]]*-1))
colnames(compareZIV) <- c("ZIV returns", "Replication returns")
charts.PerformanceSummary(compareZIV)

zivComparison.PNG

So, rebuilding from the futures does a tiny bit better than the ETN. But the trajectory is largely identical.

That concludes this post. I hope it has shed some light on how these volatility ETNs work, and how to obtain them directly from the futures data published by the CBOE, which are the inputs to my term structure algorithm.

This also means that for institutions interested in trading my strategy, that they can obtain leverage to trade the futures-composite replicated variants of these ETNs, at greater volume.

Thanks for reading.

NOTES: For those interested in a retail subscription strategy to trading volatility, do not hesitate to subscribe to my volatility-trading strategy. For those interested in employing me full-time or for long-term consulting projects, I can be reached on my LinkedIn, or my email: ilya.kipnis@gmail.com.

(Don’t Get) Contangled Up In Noise

This post will be about investigating the efficacy of contango as a volatility trading signal.

For those that trade volatility (like me), a term you may see that’s somewhat ubiquitous is the term “contango”. What does this term mean?

Well, simple: it just means the ratio of the second month of VIX futures over the first. The idea being is that when the second month of futures is more than the first, that people’s outlook for volatility is greater in the future than it is for the present, and therefore, the futures are “in contango”, which is most of the time.

Furthermore, those that try to find decent volatility trading ideas may have often seen that futures in contango implies that holding a short volatility position will be profitable.

Is this the case?

Well, there’s an easy way to answer that.

First off, refer back to my post on obtaining free futures data from the CBOE.

Using this data, we can obtain our signal (that is, in order to run the code in this post, run the code in that post).

xivSig <- termStructure$C2 > termStructure$C1

Now, let’s get our XIV data (again, big thanks to Mr. Helmuth Vollmeier for so kindly providing it.

require(downloader)
require(quantmod)
require(PerformanceAnalytics)
require(TTR)
require(Quandl)
require(data.table)

download("https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/s/jk6der1s5lxtcfy/XIVlong.TXT",
         destfile="longXIV.txt")

download("https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/s/950x55x7jtm9x2q/VXXlong.TXT", 
         destfile="longVXX.txt") #requires downloader package

xiv <- xts(read.zoo("longXIV.txt", format="%Y-%m-%d", sep=",", header=TRUE))
xivRets <- Return.calculate(Cl(xiv))

Now, here’s how this works: as the CBOE doesn’t update its settles until around 9:45 AM EST on the day after (EG a Tuesday’s settle data won’t release until Wednesday at 9:45 AM EST), we have to enter at close of the day after the signal fires. (For those wondering, my subscription strategy uses this mechanism, giving subscribers ample time to execute throughout the day.)

So, let’s calculate our backtest returns. Here’s a stratStats function to compute some summary statistics.

stratStats <- function(rets) {
  stats <- rbind(table.AnnualizedReturns(rets), maxDrawdown(rets))
  stats[5,] <- stats[1,]/stats[4,]
  stats[6,] <- stats[1,]/UlcerIndex(rets)
  rownames(stats)[4] <- "Worst Drawdown"
  rownames(stats)[5] <- "Calmar Ratio"
  rownames(stats)[6] <- "Ulcer Performance Index"
  return(stats)
}
stratRets <- lag(xivSig, 2) * xivRets
charts.PerformanceSummary(stratRets)
stratStats(stratRets)

With the following results:

contangled

                                 C2
Annualized Return         0.3749000
Annualized Std Dev        0.4995000
Annualized Sharpe (Rf=0%) 0.7505000
Worst Drawdown            0.7491131
Calmar Ratio              0.5004585
Ulcer Performance Index   0.7984454

So, this is obviously a disaster. Visual inspection will show devastating, multi-year drawdowns. Using the table.Drawdowns command, we can view the worst ones.

> table.Drawdowns(stratRets, top = 10)
         From     Trough         To   Depth Length To Trough Recovery
1  2007-02-23 2008-12-15 2010-04-06 -0.7491    785       458      327
2  2010-04-21 2010-06-30 2010-10-25 -0.5550    131        50       81
3  2014-07-07 2015-12-11 2017-01-04 -0.5397    631       364      267
4  2012-03-27 2012-06-01 2012-07-17 -0.3680     78        47       31
5  2017-07-25 2017-08-17 2017-10-16 -0.3427     59        18       41
6  2013-09-27 2014-04-11 2014-06-18 -0.3239    182       136       46
7  2011-02-15 2011-03-16 2011-04-26 -0.3013     49        21       28
8  2013-02-20 2013-03-01 2013-04-23 -0.2298     44         8       36
9  2013-05-20 2013-06-20 2013-07-08 -0.2261     34        23       11
10 2012-12-19 2012-12-28 2013-01-23 -0.2154     23         7       16

So, the top 3 are horrendous, and then anything above 30% is still pretty awful. A couple of those drawdowns lasted multiple years as well, with a massive length to the trough. 458 trading days is nearly two years, and 364 is about one and a half years. Imagine seeing a strategy be consistently on the wrong side of the trade for nearly two years, and when all is said and done, you’ve lost three-fourths of everything in that strategy.

There’s no sugar-coating this: such a strategy can only be called utter trash.

Let’s try one modification: we’ll require both contango (C2 > C1), and that contango be above its 60-day simple moving average, similar to my VXV/VXMT strategy.

contango <- termStructure$C2/termStructure$C1
maContango <- SMA(contango, 60)
xivSig <- contango > 1 & contango > maContango
stratRets <- lag(xivSig, 2) * xivRets

With the results:

stillContangled

> stratStats(stratRets)
                                 C2
Annualized Return         0.4271000
Annualized Std Dev        0.3429000
Annualized Sharpe (Rf=0%) 1.2457000
Worst Drawdown            0.5401002
Calmar Ratio              0.7907792
Ulcer Performance Index   1.7515706

Drawdowns:

> table.Drawdowns(stratRets, top = 10)
         From     Trough         To   Depth Length To Trough Recovery
1  2007-04-17 2008-03-17 2010-01-06 -0.5401    688       232      456
2  2014-12-08 2014-12-31 2015-04-09 -0.2912     84        17       67
3  2017-07-25 2017-09-05 2017-12-08 -0.2610     97        30       67
4  2012-03-27 2012-06-21 2012-07-02 -0.2222     68        61        7
5  2012-07-20 2012-12-06 2013-02-08 -0.2191    139        96       43
6  2015-10-20 2015-11-13 2016-03-16 -0.2084    102        19       83
7  2013-12-27 2014-04-11 2014-05-23 -0.1935    102        73       29
8  2017-03-21 2017-05-17 2017-06-26 -0.1796     68        41       27
9  2012-02-07 2012-02-15 2012-03-12 -0.1717     24         7       17
10 2016-09-08 2016-09-09 2016-12-06 -0.1616     63         2       61

So, a Calmar still safely below 1, an Ulcer Performance Index still in the basement, a maximum drawdown that’s long past the point that people will have abandoned the strategy, and so on.

So, even though it was improved, it’s still safe to say this strategy doesn’t perform too well. Even after the large 2007-2008 drawdown, it still gets some things pretty badly wrong, like being exposed to all of August 2017.

While I think there are applications to contango in volatility investing, I don’t think its use is in generating the long/short volatility signal on its own. Rather, I think other indices and sources of data do a better job of that. Such as the VXV/VXMT, which has since been iterated on to form my subscription strategy.

Thanks for reading.

NOTE: I am currently seeking networking opportunities, long-term projects, and full-time positions related to my skill set. My linkedIn profile can be found here.

Comparing Some Strategies from Easy Volatility Investing, and the Table.Drawdowns Command

This post will be about comparing strategies from the paper “Easy Volatility Investing”, along with a demonstration of R’s table.Drawdowns command.

First off, before going further, while I think the execution assumptions found in EVI don’t lend the strategies well to actual live trading (although their risk/reward tradeoffs also leave a lot of room for improvement), I think these strategies are great as benchmarks.

So, some time ago, I did an out-of-sample test for one of the strategies found in EVI, which can be found here.

Using the same source of data, I also obtained data for SPY (though, again, AlphaVantage can also provide this service for free for those that don’t use Quandl).

Here’s the new code.

require(downloader)
require(quantmod)
require(PerformanceAnalytics)
require(TTR)
require(Quandl)
require(data.table)

download("http://www.cboe.com/publish/scheduledtask/mktdata/datahouse/vix3mdailyprices.csv", destfile="vxvData.csv")

VIX <- fread("http://www.cboe.com/publish/scheduledtask/mktdata/datahouse/vixcurrent.csv", skip = 1)
VIXdates <- VIX$Date
VIX$Date <- NULL; VIX <- xts(VIX, order.by=as.Date(VIXdates, format = '%m/%d/%Y'))

vxv <- xts(read.zoo("vxvData.csv", header=TRUE, sep=",", format="%m/%d/%Y", skip=2))

ma_vRatio <- SMA(Cl(VIX)/Cl(vxv), 10)
xivSigVratio <- ma_vRatio < 1 
vxxSigVratio <- ma_vRatio > 1 

# V-ratio (VXV/VXMT)
vRatio <- lag(xivSigVratio) * xivRets + lag(vxxSigVratio) * vxxRets
# vRatio <- lag(xivSigVratio, 2) * xivRets + lag(vxxSigVratio, 2) * vxxRets


# Volatility Risk Premium Strategy
spy <- Quandl("EOD/SPY", start_date='1990-01-01', type = 'xts')
spyRets <- Return.calculate(spy$Adj_Close)
histVol <- runSD(spyRets, n = 10, sample = FALSE) * sqrt(252) * 100
vixDiff <- Cl(VIX) - histVol
maVixDiff <- SMA(vixDiff, 5)

vrpXivSig <- maVixDiff > 0 
vrpVxxSig <- maVixDiff < 0
vrpRets <- lag(vrpXivSig, 1) * xivRets + lag(vrpVxxSig, 1) * vxxRets


obsCloseMomentum <- magicThinking # from previous post

compare <- na.omit(cbind(xivRets, obsCloseMomentum, vRatio, vrpRets))
colnames(compare) <- c("BH_XIV", "DDN_Momentum", "DDN_VRatio", "DDN_VRP")

So, an explanation: there are four return streams here–buy and hold XIV, the DDN momentum from a previous post, and two other strategies.

The simpler one, called the VRatio is simply the ratio of the VIX over the VXV. Near the close, check this quantity. If this is less than one, buy XIV, otherwise, buy VXX.

The other one, called the Volatility Risk Premium strategy (or VRP for short), compares the 10 day historical volatility (that is, the annualized running ten day standard deviation) of the S&P 500, subtracts it from the VIX, and takes a 5 day moving average of that. Near the close, when that’s above zero (that is, VIX is higher than historical volatility), go long XIV, otherwise, go long VXX.

Again, all of these strategies are effectively “observe near/at the close, buy at the close”, so are useful for demonstration purposes, though not for implementation purposes on any large account without incurring market impact.

Here are the results, since 2011 (that is, around the time of XIV’s actual inception):
easyVolInvesting

To note, both the momentum and the VRP strategy underperform buying and holding XIV since 2011. The VRatio strategy, on the other hand, does outperform.

Here’s a summary statistics function that compiles some top-level performance metrics.

stratStats <- function(rets) {
  stats <- rbind(table.AnnualizedReturns(rets), maxDrawdown(rets))
  stats[5,] <- stats[1,]/stats[4,]
  stats[6,] <- stats[1,]/UlcerIndex(rets)
  rownames(stats)[4] <- "Worst Drawdown"
  rownames(stats)[5] <- "Calmar Ratio"
  rownames(stats)[6] <- "Ulcer Performance Index"
  return(stats)
}

And the result:

> stratStats(compare['2011::'])
                             BH_XIV DDN_Momentum DDN_VRatio   DDN_VRP
Annualized Return         0.3801000    0.2837000  0.4539000 0.2572000
Annualized Std Dev        0.6323000    0.5706000  0.6328000 0.6326000
Annualized Sharpe (Rf=0%) 0.6012000    0.4973000  0.7172000 0.4066000
Worst Drawdown            0.7438706    0.6927479  0.7665093 0.7174481
Calmar Ratio              0.5109759    0.4095285  0.5921650 0.3584929
Ulcer Performance Index   1.1352168    1.2076995  1.5291637 0.7555808

To note, all of the benchmark strategies suffered very large drawdowns since XIV’s inception, which we can examine using the table.Drawdowns command, as seen below:

> table.Drawdowns(compare[,1]['2011::'], top = 5)
        From     Trough         To   Depth Length To Trough Recovery
1 2011-07-08 2011-11-25 2012-11-26 -0.7439    349        99      250
2 2015-06-24 2016-02-11 2016-12-21 -0.6783    379       161      218
3 2014-07-07 2015-01-30 2015-06-11 -0.4718    236       145       91
4 2011-02-15 2011-03-16 2011-04-20 -0.3013     46        21       25
5 2013-04-15 2013-06-24 2013-07-22 -0.2877     69        50       19
> table.Drawdowns(compare[,2]['2011::'], top = 5)
        From     Trough         To   Depth Length To Trough Recovery
1 2014-07-07 2016-06-27 2017-03-13 -0.6927    677       499      178
2 2012-03-27 2012-06-13 2012-09-13 -0.4321    119        55       64
3 2011-10-04 2011-10-28 2012-03-21 -0.3621    117        19       98
4 2011-02-15 2011-03-16 2011-04-21 -0.3013     47        21       26
5 2011-06-01 2011-08-04 2011-08-18 -0.2723     56        46       10
> table.Drawdowns(compare[,3]['2011::'], top = 5)
        From     Trough         To   Depth Length To Trough Recovery
1 2014-01-23 2016-02-11 2017-02-14 -0.7665    772       518      254
2 2011-09-13 2011-11-25 2012-03-21 -0.5566    132        53       79
3 2012-03-27 2012-06-01 2012-07-19 -0.3900     80        47       33
4 2011-02-15 2011-03-16 2011-04-20 -0.3013     46        21       25
5 2013-04-15 2013-06-24 2013-07-22 -0.2877     69        50       19
> table.Drawdowns(compare[,4]['2011::'], top = 5)
        From     Trough         To   Depth Length To Trough Recovery
1 2015-06-24 2016-02-11 2017-10-11 -0.7174    581       161      420
2 2011-07-08 2011-10-03 2012-02-03 -0.6259    146        61       85
3 2014-07-07 2014-12-16 2015-05-21 -0.4818    222       115      107
4 2013-02-20 2013-07-08 2014-06-10 -0.4108    329        96      233
5 2012-03-27 2012-06-01 2012-07-17 -0.3900     78        47       31

Note that the table.Drawdowns command only examines one return stream at a time. Furthermore, the top argument specifies how many drawdowns to look at, sorted by greatest drawdown first.

One reason I think that these strategies seem to suffer the drawdowns they do is that they’re either all-in on one asset, or its exact opposite, with no room for error.

One last thing, for the curious, here is the comparison with my strategy since 2011 (essentially XIV inception) benchmarked against the strategies in EVI (which I have been trading with live capital since September, and have recently opened a subscription service for):

volPerfBenchmarks

stratStats(compare['2011::'])
                             QST_vol    BH_XIV DDN_Momentum DDN_VRatio   DDN_VRP
Annualized Return          0.8133000 0.3801000    0.2837000  0.4539000 0.2572000
Annualized Std Dev         0.3530000 0.6323000    0.5706000  0.6328000 0.6326000
Annualized Sharpe (Rf=0%)  2.3040000 0.6012000    0.4973000  0.7172000 0.4066000
Worst Drawdown             0.2480087 0.7438706    0.6927479  0.7665093 0.7174481
Calmar Ratio               3.2793211 0.5109759    0.4095285  0.5921650 0.3584929
Ulcer Performance Index   10.4220721 1.1352168    1.2076995  1.5291637 0.7555808

Thanks for reading.

NOTE: I am currently looking for networking and full-time opportunities related to my skill set. My LinkedIn profile can be found here.

Launching My Subscription Service

After gauging interest from my readers, I’ve decided to open up a subscription service. I’ll copy and paste the FAQs, or my best attempt at trying to answer as many questions as possible ahead of time, and may answer more in the future.

I’m choosing to use Patreon just to outsource all of the technicalities of handling subscriptions and creating a centralized source to post subscription-based content.

Here’s the link to subscribe.

FAQs (copied from the subscription page):

*****

Thank you for visiting. After gauging interest from my readership on my main site (www.quantstrattrader.wordpress.com), I created this as a subscription page for quantitative investment strategies, with the goal of having subscribers turn their cash into more cash, net of subscription fees (hopefully). The systems I develop come from a background of learning from experienced quantitative trading professionals, and senior researchers at large firms. The current system I initially published a prototype for several years back and watched it being tracked, before finally starting to deploy my own capital earlier this year, and making the most recent modifications even more recently. 

And while past performance doesn’t guarantee future results and the past doesn’t repeat itself, it often rhymes, so let’s turn money into more money.

Some FAQs about the strategy:

​What is the subscription price for this strategy?

​Currently, after gauging interest from readers and doing research based on other sites, the tentative pricing is $50/month. As this strategy builds a track record, that may be subject to change in the future, and notifications will be made in such an event.

What is the description of the strategy?

The strategy is mainly a short volatility system that trades XIV, ZIV, and VXX. As far as volatility strategies go, it’s fairly conservative in that it uses several different checks in order to ensure a position.

What is the strategy’s edge?

In two words: risk management. Essentially, there are a few separate criteria to select an investment, and the system spends a not-insignificant time with no exposure when some of these criteria provide contradictory signals. Furthermore, the system uses disciplined methodologies in its construction in order to avoid unnecessary free parameters, and to keep the strategy as parsimonious as possible.

Do you trade your own capital with this strategy?

Yes. 

When was the in-sample training period for this system?

A site that no longer updates its blog (volatility made simple) once tracked a more rudimentary strategy that I wrote about several years ago. I was particularly pleased with the results of that vetting, and recently have received input to improve my system to a much greater degree, as well as gained the confidence to invest live capital into it.

How many trades per year does the system make?

In the backtest from April 20, 2008 through the end of 2016, the system made 187 transactions in XIV (both buy and sell), 160 in ZIV, and 52 in VXX. Meaning over the course of approximately 9 years, there was on average 43 transactions per year. In some cases, this may simply be switching from XIV to ZIV or vice versa. In other words, trades last approximately a week (some may be longer, some shorter).

When will signals be posted?

Signals will be posted sometime between 12 PM and market close (4 PM EST). In backtesting, they are tested as market on close orders, so individuals assume any risk/reward by executing earlier.

How often is this system in the market?

About 56%. However, over the course of backtesting (and live trading), only about 9% of months have zero return. 

What are the distribution of winning, losing, and zero return months?

As of late October 2017, there have been about 65% winning months (with an average gain of 12.8%), 26% losing months (with an average loss of 4.9%), and 9% zero months.

What are some other statistics about the strategy?

Since 2011 (around the time that XIV officially came into inception as opposed to using synthetic data), the strategy has boasted an 82% annualized return, with a 24.8% maximum drawdown and an annualized standard deviation of 35%. This means a Sharpe ratio (return to standard deviation) higher than 2, and a Calmar ratio higher than 3. It also has an Ulcer Performance Index of 10.

What are the strategy’s worst drawdowns?

Since 2011 (again, around the time of XIV’s inception), the largest drawdown was 24.8%, starting on October 31, 2011, and making a new equity high on January 12, 2012. The longest drawdown started on August 21, 2014 and recovered on April 10, 2015, and lasted for 160 trading days.

Will the subscription price change in the future?

If the strategy continues to deliver strong returns, then there may be reason to increase the price so long as the returns bear it out.

Can a conservative risk signal be provided for those who might not be able to tolerate a 25% drawdown? 

A variant of the strategy that targets about half of the annualized standard deviation of the strategy boasts a 40% annualized return for about 12% drawdown since 2011. Overall, this has slightly higher reward to risk statistics, but at the cost of cutting aggregate returns in half.

Can’t XIV have a termination event?

This refers to the idea of the XIV ETN terminating if it loses 80% of its value in a single day. To give an idea of the likelihood of this event, using synthetic data, the XIV ETN had a massive drawdown of 92% over the course of the 2008 financial crisis. For the history of that synthetic (pre-inception) and realized (post-inception) data, the absolute worst day was a down day of 26.8%. To note, the strategy was not in XIV during that day.

What was the strategy’s worst day?

On September 16, 2016, the strategy lost 16% in one day. This was at the tail end of a stretch of positive days that made about 40%.

What are the strategy’s risks?

The first risk is that given that this strategy is naturally biased towards short volatility, that it can have potential for some sharp drawdowns due to the nature of volatility spikes. The other risk is that given that this strategy sometimes spends its time in ZIV, that it will underperform XIV on some good days. This second risk is a consequence of additional layers of risk management in the strategy.

How complex is this strategy?

Not overly. It’s only slightly more complex than a basic momentum strategy when counting free parameters, and can be explained in a couple of minutes.

Does this strategy use any complex machine learning methodologies?

No. The data requirements for such algorithms and the noise in the financial world make it very risky to apply these methodologies, and research as of yet did not bear fruit to justify incorporating them.

Will instrument volume ever be a concern (particularly ZIV)?

According to one individual who worked on the creation of the original VXX ETN (and by extension, its inverse, XIV), new shares of ETNs can be created by the issuer (in ZIV’s case, Credit Suisse) on demand. In short, the concern of volume is more of a concern of the reputability of the person making the request. In other words, it depends on how well the strategy does.

Can the strategy be held liable/accountable/responsible for a subscriber’s loss/drawdown?

​Let this serve as a disclaimer: by subscribing, you agree to waive any legal claim against the strategy, or its creator(s) in the event of drawdowns, losses, etc. The subscription is for viewing the output of a program, and this service does not actively manage a penny of subscribers’ actual assets. Subscribers can choose to ignore the strategy’s signals at a moment’s notice at their discretion. The program’s output should not be thought of as the investment advice coming from a CFP, CFA, RIA, etc.

Why should these signals be trusted?

Because my work on other topics has been on full, public display for several years. Unlike other websites, I have shown “bad backtests”, thus breaking the adage of “you’ll never see a bad backtest”. I have shown thoroughness in my research, and the same thoroughness has been applied towards this system as well. Until there is a longer track record such that the system can stand on its own, the trust in the system is the trust in the system’s creator.

Who is the intended audience for these signals?

The intended audience is individual, retail investors with a certain risk tolerance, and is priced accordingly. 

​Isn’t volatility investing very risky?

​It’s risky from the perspective of the underlying instrument having the capacity to realize very large drawdowns (greater than 60%, and even greater than 90%). However, from a purely numerical standpoint, the company taking over so much of shopping, Amazon, since inception has had a 37.1% annualized rate of return, a standard deviation of 61.5%, a worst drawdown of 94%, and an Ulcer Performance Index of 0.9. By comparison, XIV, from 2008 (using synthetic data), has had a 35.5% annualized rate of return, a standard deviation of 57.7%, a worst drawdown of 92%, and an Ulcer Performance Index of 0.6. If Amazon is considered a top-notch asset, then from a quantitative comparison, a system looking to capitalize on volatility bets should be viewed from a similar perspective. To be sure, the strategy’s performance vastly outperforms that of buying and holding XIV (which nobody should do). However, the philosophy of volatility products being much riskier than household tech names just does not hold true unless the future wildly differs from the past.

​Is there a possibility for collaborating with other strategy creators?

​Feel free to contact me at my email ilya.kipnis@gmail.com to discuss that possibility. I request a daily stream of returns before starting any discussion.

Why Patreon?

Because past all the artsy-craftsy window dressing and interesting choice of vocabulary, Patreon is simply a platform that processes payments and creates a centralized platform from which to post subscription-based content, as opposed to maintaining mailing lists and other technical headaches. Essentially, it’s simply a way to outsource the technical end of running a business, even if the window dressing is a bit unorthodox.

***

Thanks for reading.

NOTE: I am currently interested in networking and full-time roles based on my skills. My LinkedIn profile can be found here.

The Return of Free Data and Possible Volatility Trading Subscription

This post will be about pulling free data from AlphaVantage, and gauging interest for a volatility trading subscription service.

So first off, ever since the yahoos at Yahoo decided to turn off their free data, the world of free daily data has been in somewhat of a dark age. Well, thanks to http://blog.fosstrading.com/2017/10/getsymbols-and-alpha-vantage.html#gpluscommentsJosh Ulrich, Paul Teetor, and other R/Finance individuals, the latest edition of quantmod (which can be installed from CRAN) now contains a way to get free financial data from AlphaVantage since the year 2000, which is usually enough for most backtests, as that date predates the inception of most ETFs.

Here’s how to do it.

First off, you need to go to alphaVantage, register, and https://www.alphavantage.co/support/#api-keyget an API key.

Once you do that, downloading data is simple, if not slightly slow. Here’s how to do it.

require(quantmod)

getSymbols('SPY', src = 'av', adjusted = TRUE, output.size = 'full', api.key = YOUR_KEY_HERE)

And the results:

> head(SPY)
           SPY.Open SPY.High SPY.Low SPY.Close SPY.Volume SPY.Adjusted
2000-01-03   148.25   148.25 143.875  145.4375    8164300     104.3261
2000-01-04   143.50   144.10 139.600  139.8000    8089800     100.2822
2000-01-05   139.90   141.20 137.300  140.8000    9976700     100.9995
2000-01-06   139.60   141.50 137.800  137.8000    6227200      98.8476
2000-01-07   140.30   145.80 140.100  145.8000    8066500     104.5862
2000-01-10   146.30   146.90 145.000  146.3000    5741700     104.9448

Which means if any one of my old posts on asset allocation has been somewhat defunct thanks to bad yahoo data, it will now work again with a slight modification to the data input algorithms.

Beyond demonstrating this routine, one other thing I’d like to do is to gauge interest for a volatility signal subscription service, for a system I have personally started trading a couple of months ago.

Simply, I have seen other websites with subscription services with worse risk/reward than the strategy I currently trade, which switches between XIV, ZIV, and VXX. Currently, the equity curve, in log 10, looks like this:

volStratPerf

That is, $1000 in 2008 would have become approximately $1,000,000 today, if one was able to trade this strategy since then.

Since 2011 (around the time of inception for XIV), the performance has been:


                        Performance
Annualized Return         0.8265000
Annualized Std Dev        0.3544000
Annualized Sharpe (Rf=0%) 2.3319000
Worst Drawdown            0.2480087
Calmar Ratio              3.3325450

Considering that some websites out there charge upwards of $50 a month for either a single tactical asset rotation strategy (and a lot more for a combination) with inferior risk/return profiles, or a volatility strategy that may have had a massive and historically record-breaking drawdown, I was hoping to gauge a price point for what readers would consider paying for signals from a better strategy than those.

Thanks for reading.

NOTE: I am currently interested in networking and am seeking full-time opportunities related to my skill set. My LinkedIn profile can be found here.

The Kelly Criterion — Does It Work?

This post will be about implementing and investigating the running Kelly Criterion — that is, a constantly adjusted Kelly Criterion that changes as a strategy realizes returns.

For those not familiar with the Kelly Criterion, it’s the idea of adjusting a bet size to maximize a strategy’s long term growth rate. Both https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelly_criterionWikipedia and Investopedia have entries on the Kelly Criterion. Essentially, it’s about maximizing your long-run expectation of a betting system, by sizing bets higher when the edge is higher, and vice versa.

There are two formulations for the Kelly criterion: the Wikipedia result presents it as mean over sigma squared. The Investopedia definition is P-[(1-P)/winLossRatio], where P is the probability of a winning bet, and the winLossRatio is the average win over the average loss.

In any case, here are the two implementations.

investoPediaKelly <- function(R, kellyFraction = 1, n = 63) {
  signs <- sign(R)
  posSigns <- signs; posSigns[posSigns < 0] <- 0
  negSigns <- signs; negSigns[negSigns > 0] <- 0; negSigns <- negSigns * -1
  probs <- runSum(posSigns, n = n)/(runSum(posSigns, n = n) + runSum(negSigns, n = n))
  posVals <- R; posVals[posVals < 0] <- 0
  negVals <- R; negVals[negVals > 0] <- 0; 
  wlRatio <- (runSum(posVals, n = n)/runSum(posSigns, n = n))/(runSum(negVals, n = n)/runSum(negSigns, n = n))
  kellyRatio <- probs - ((1-probs)/wlRatio)
  out <- kellyRatio * kellyFraction
  return(out)
}

wikiKelly <- function(R, kellyFraction = 1, n = 63) {
  return(runMean(R, n = n)/runVar(R, n = n)*kellyFraction)
}

Let’s try this with some data. At this point in time, I’m going to show a non-replicable volatility strategy that I currently trade.

volSince2011

For the record, here are its statistics:

                              Close
Annualized Return         0.8021000
Annualized Std Dev        0.3553000
Annualized Sharpe (Rf=0%) 2.2574000
Worst Drawdown            0.2480087
Calmar Ratio              3.2341613

Now, let’s see what the Wikipedia version does:

badKelly <- out * lag(wikiKelly(out), 2)
charts.PerformanceSummary(badKelly)

badKelly

The results are simply ridiculous. And here would be why: say you have a mean return of .0005 per day (5 bps/day), and a standard deviation equal to that (that is, a Sharpe ratio of 1). You would have 1/.0005 = 2000. In other words, a leverage of 2000 times. This clearly makes no sense.

The other variant is the more particular Investopedia definition.

invKelly <- out * lag(investKelly(out), 2)
charts.PerformanceSummary(invKelly)

invKelly

Looks a bit more reasonable. However, how does it stack up against not using it at all?

compare <- na.omit(cbind(out, invKelly))
charts.PerformanceSummary(compare)

kellyCompare

Turns out, the fabled Kelly Criterion doesn’t really change things all that much.

For the record, here are the statistical comparisons:

                               Base     Kelly
Annualized Return         0.8021000 0.7859000
Annualized Std Dev        0.3553000 0.3588000
Annualized Sharpe (Rf=0%) 2.2574000 2.1903000
Worst Drawdown            0.2480087 0.2579846
Calmar Ratio              3.2341613 3.0463063

Thanks for reading.

NOTE: I am currently looking for my next full-time opportunity, preferably in New York City or Philadelphia relating to the skills I have demonstrated on this blog. My LinkedIn profile can be found here. If you know of such opportunities, do not hesitate to reach out to me.